On 16 November 2008, the Iraqi Cabinet approved the agreements; on 27 November, the Iraqi parliament ratified it; On December 4, the Iraqi Presidential Council approved the security pacts.  The text of this Agreement is available at iraq.usembassy.gov/pr_11262007.html [hereinafter the “Statement of Principles”). The declaration is rooted in a statement of 26 August 2007 signed by five political leaders in Iraq calling for a long-term relationship with the United States. The strategic agreement provided for in the declaration will ultimately replace the United Nations mandate that the United States and its allied forces are responsible for contributing to Iraq`s security. For more information on the impact of the upcoming U.S.-Iraq agreement, see The Proposed U.S. Security Commitment to Iraq: What Will Be In It and Should It Be a Treaty?: Hearing Before the Subcomm. on International Organizations, Human Rights, and Oversight & Subcomm. On the Middle East and South Asia of the House Comm. on Foreign Affairs, 23 January 2008 (statement by CRS Specialist [author name rubbed]). For further discussions on U.S. operations in Iraq and issues related to Iraqi governance and security, see crS report RL31339, Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security, by [arched author name] and CRS report RL33793, Iraq: U.S. Regional Perspectives and Politics, coordinated by [author name].
The potential for military operations is also covered by Article 27 (deterrence of security threats) of the agreement. The agreement calls for “strategic consultations” in the event of an external or internal threat or aggression against Iraq and states that the United States “shall take appropriate measures, including diplomatic, economic or military measures,” to deter the threat.52 It has been argued that this clause obliges the United States to come and defend Iraq and, therefore, this agreement is more than a SOFA; This is a security agreement that requires congressional input and approval.53 If the clause is read in its entirety, the United States is not required to do anything other than participate in strategic discussions, and only at Iraq`s request. In the discussions, the parties have all options, including military, but no absolutely necessary measures are necessary.54. In August 2010, the United States had withdrawn the last major combat unit, the United States. The Army`s 4th Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division, allows Iraq to officially take over combat operations inside the country.62 The post-combat phase of operations, Operation New Dawn, includes the presence of approximately 50,000 Americans. . . .