Originally, the system was based on a network of free trade agreements with individual origin protocols. The specific protocols on origin are replaced by a reference to the Regional Convention on Pan-Euro-Mediterranean (MSP) Preferential Rules of Origin, established in 2011 to create a more uniform framework for protocols on origin. A Joint Committee composed of representatives of the EFTA States and Egypt monitors and manages the application of the Agreement (Articles 37 and 38). The Parties may hold consultations and, in the absence of agreement, apply interim measures (Articles 39 and 40). Another agreement on agricultural products, processed agricultural products and fishery products entered into force on 1 June 2010. An agreement between the European Economic Community and Egypt was signed in January 1977 under the aegis of the World Mediterranean Policy (GMP), launched in 1972.  The 1995 Euro-Mediterranean Partnership Framework paved the way for modest progress in EU-Egypt relations, which culminated in a new Association Agreement, signed on 25 June 2001 under the Barcelona Process and entered into force in June 2004.  An EU-Egypt Action Plan also entered into force in 2007.  Trade in processed agricultural products is included in a Protocol to the Main Agreement (Article 4(b) and Protocol A). In addition, trade in agricultural commodities is covered by three bilateral agreements negotiated separately between Iceland (Agricultural Agreement between Iceland and Egypt), Norway (Agricultural Agreement between Norway and Egypt) and Switzerland/Liechtenstein (Agricultural Agreement between Switzerland and Egypt), of the one part, and Egypt, of the other part.
These agreements, which are part of the instruments for the creation of the free trade area (Article 4(d)), provide for tariff concessions. In November 2010, the EU and Egypt signed a protocol establishing a dispute settlement mechanism applicable to the trade parts of the Association Agreement. Egypt has not yet ratified the protocol. The agreement covers trade in industrial products, including fish and other seafood products, as well as processed agricultural products. In addition, some EFTA States and Egypt have concluded bilateral agreements on basic agricultural products, which are part of the instruments for the creation of the free trade area. In 2004, Egypt signed the Agadir Agreement with Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. This agreement removes all trade tariffs between them and harmonizes their rules on product standards and customs. The EU and Egypt meet regularly to discuss issues and best practices in the implementation of the agreement. The committees meet regularly.
The European Neighbourhood Policy provides political and financial support to Egypt. . . .