30. Fagiolo G, Reyes J, Schiavo S. World Trade Web: Topological properties, dynamics, and evolution. Phys Rev E. (2009) 79:036115. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.036115 AG: Inequality is a complex phenomenon. It is the result of several and multiple economic forces. It is difficult to define, measure and compare at the transnational level. But it is important to distinguish two different dimensions of inequality. First, we have what we call global inequality. It is inequality between people in the world, regardless of their country of residence. Second, inequality between people within a single country. Global inequalities far exceed inequalities in each country.
A recent study by the World Bank Group in Lakner and Milanovic showed that global inequalities are still very high. However, global inequality has declined significantly since the 2000s. This is largely due to the increase in the wealth of developing countries, particularly China, but to a lesser extent by India and others. Trade is far behind the success of these developing countries. However, increased trade is needed to eradicate poverty and reduce global inequality. Overall, there are two main approaches to estimating international merchandise trade: this graph was inspired by a graph by Helpman, E., Melitz, M., Rubinstein, Y. (2007). Estimated trade flows: trading partners and trade volume (no. w12927). National Bureau of Economic Research. The analytical framework highlights the provisions of trade and investment agreements that need to be studied, the avenues to be explored and the possible consequences that should be taken into account in terms of pharmaceutical policy. This can be a checklist or useful model for assessing health and human rights impacts and researching the impact of trade agreements on medicines.
Lexchin JR, Gagnon M-A. CETA and medicines: the impact of the Trade Agreement between Europe and Canada on the cost of prescription drugs. globalization and health. 2014;10(30). doi: doi.org/10.1186/1744-8603-10-30. Figure 11. Likely distribution of the average length of ITN sub-networks, spanning all pairs of countries with a bilateral trade agreement (solid purple) and without agreement (light violet), as there is a direct route between countries.